German revolutionary born in Poland who founded the German Spartacus party with Karl Liebknecht. Like many of her contemporaries, Luxemburg's revolutionary activities forced her into exile, where she turned to the works of Karl Marx. In 1892 she co-founded the Polish Socialist Party and later served as a member of the German Social Democratic party. She worked with Vladimir Lenin in 1905 in the Polish Revolution but later split with Lenin over the formation of the revolutionary classes, accurately predicting that Lenin would eventually install himself as the dictator of the proletariat. In 1918, after the outbreak of the German Revolution, she helped to transform the German Social Democratic Party to the German Communist Party but was arrested for her involvement in the Berlinist uprisings a year later. Both Luxemburg and Liebknecht were killed en route to prison.