Historical materialism follows the viewpoint of determinism, the idea that all history is shaped by certain eternal laws unassailable by human forces. Also known as dialectical materialism, it provides the philosophical backbone of communism that states that everything is material and that change takes place through the struggle of opposites. The opposing forces, thesis and antithesis, are resolved by a higher force in a combination known as synthesis. Historical materialism was formulated by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, serves as the philosophical basis for socialism and communism, and was enacted in various forms through leaders such as Mao, Stalin, and Lenin. In Cultural studies terms, historical materialism states that social structures are created for economic ends. Therefore, history and society are shaped only by economic forces. Classes are formed through the control of the means of production, capital and land. Those who control the means of production dominate the other members of society, and the conflicts that result are what we know as history.